CBD oil Effect, Application, Quality & Purchase Recommendation

Author: Dr. Michael Tyler
Date: 01.10.2020
Reading time: 12:7 min

CBD oil is becoming increasingly popular. It can relieve pain, inhibit inflammation and promote sleep - without serious side effects.

Name CBD
Lat. Name Cannabis
Synonyms Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolum, CBD
Origin Central Asia
Price per 10ml 48,00

Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active ingredient, extracted from alcohol or from hemp flowers and leaves and is one of the cannabinoids. It has antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and (anxiolytic) anxiety-relieving effects.

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In contrast to cannabinoid THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD has no intoxicating, ‘high’ effect and is also present in the cannabis sativa varieties. According to EU regulations, these may contain the active ingredient THC, but only minimally (0.3%). As a cosmetic product and as a dietary supplement, CBD oil can be legally ordered online. However, all medicinal products that contain this active ingredient require a prescription.

Psychological impact

Cannabis oil relieves anxiety and depression, according to a Brazilian study. Researchers posited that CBD exerts its antidepressant qualities through activating the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A. This receptor is an important target for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

By binding to and activating the 5-HT1A receptor, CBD controls the release of serotonin and other messenger substances, thereby producing anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. The general calming effect can also help alleviate sleep disorders.

Physical effect

CBD and THC both work on the endocannaboid system in the human body. This complex signalling network is widely distributed throughout the body. It consists of two different receptors, and its uses both fatty acids and enzymes.

  • The cannabinoid receptor 1 is mainly found in the peripheral nervous system, including the digestive tract.
  • The cannabinoid receptor 2 is mainly found in cells of the immune system, on red blood cells, certain intestinal cells and in cells that are involved in bone construction.

The endocannabinoid system plays a role in many body processes, including pain, inflammation, intraocular pressure, metabolism, sleep behaviour and mood. In general, it can be said that cannabis oil inhibits inflammation, relieves pain and has a general calming effect on the body.

Cancer treatment

Cannabidiol can curb cancer cell growth. Scientists at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute in San Francisco have found CBD to be effective against breast cancer. The scientists attributed this to the fact that CBD inhibits the protein Id-1 and thereby prevents the formation and growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in tumors.

These processes prevent the further development of cancer cells. Subsequent research suggests that the activation of CB-2 and vanilloid-1 receptors by CBD also leads to apoptosis (a programmed cell death) of cancer cells. Previous studies have shown, among other things, a cancer-inhibiting effect of CBD in breast cancer, leukemia, prostate cancer and gliomas (brain or spinal cord tumors).

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Multiple sclerosis and epilepsy

Cannabidiol is a component of treatment options for multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. Due to its anticonvulsant and analgesic properties, it is found in antispasmodics such as Sativex and Nabiximol. These drugs relieve the seizures and pain associated with multiple sclerosis. However, since both drugs also contain THC, they both fall under the Narcotics Act.

Cannabidiol can significantly alleviate the spasms of some forms of epilepsy in children, such as Dravet syndrome or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In a clinical trial, Israeli scientists came to the conclusion that regular use of CBD can greatly reduce epilepsy attacks in children and adolescents. Another recently published double-blind study showed a significant decrease in seizures caused by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome when treated with CBD.

Inflammatory bowel diseases

Initial studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD indicate that the active ingredient is a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (also called IBD: Inflammatory Bowel Disease). CBD could therefore be used in future for the treatment of diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.

Pain reduction

Some patients report success in the use of cannabidiol for migraines or the mitigation of other chronic pain. CBD is currently being increasingly examined for its analgesic (pain-relieving) properties. However, the results of the studies to date are not yet significant and the mode of action has not yet been clearly defined. So far, there are three different explanations for the analgesic effects of CBD:

  • Activation of the vanilloid receptor 1
  • Activation of glycine receptors
  • Inhibition of the FAAH enzyme

Vanilloid receptor 1 is known as a pain or heat receptor. These are channels of the nerve cells that respond to pain and other stimuli. For example, the active ingredient Capsacain from Chili activates these receptors, as does CBD.

Several Chinese studies have shown that CBD relieves chronic pain via glycine receptors. These receptors occur primarily in the brain stem and spinal cord and have an inhibitory effect on nerve cells.

A third explanation deals with the effect of CBD on anandamide levels. The name Anandamid comes from the Sanskrit word Ananda, which can be translated as ‘pure luck’ or ‘joy’. This substance is a four-fold unsaturated fatty acid that the body itself can produce. The enzyme FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) breaks down anandamide. However, CBD inhibits the action of this enzyme, increasing the level of anandamide in the body.

Alleviating allergies and asthma

Due to its positive influence on the body's immune defence mechanisms and its anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant properties, the symptoms of allergies and asthma can be reduced with regular use of CBD oil.

Hyperkinetic movement disorders

Recent research suggests that CBD could be used in future to treat hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with the death or malfunction of nerve cells. Significant studies on this are still pending.

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's chorus, Tourette's syndrome or Parkinson's are associated with disorders of the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia regulate the exchange of messenger substances that are important for motor functions and cognitive processes. They are predominantly found in several areas of the brain. It has been found that the amount of CB-1 receptors in the basal ganglia is reduced in HD patients . Therapy with CBD could start here.

The influence of CBD on the adenosine receptors could also be of great importance for the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders in the future. The messenger substance dopamine is released via the adenosine receptors. In many neurogenerative diseases (such as Parkinson's), the signal transmission of dopamine is impaired because the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase required for this is missing. The resulting dopamine deficiency disturbs the balance between inhibitory and activating messenger substances, which leads to uncontrolled movements (hyperkinesis).

Scientists also attribute the ‘tics’ typical of Tourettes syndrome to an imbalance in the neurological messenger substances. CBD may be able to intervene to regulate these diseases because it activates the adenosine receptor and hence supports the release of dopamine. It is therefore believed to produce a neuroprotective effect.

Side effects

Research has shown that CBD is well tolerated. However, high dosages can cause mild side effects such as tiredness, dry mouth or diarrhoea. Because CBD oil can also inhibit appetite, people with serious illness should seek medical advice before starting treatment with CBD. This is especially true if the disease has already led to emaciation.

CBD oil for children?

Thus far there are insufficient study results on the use of CBD oil in children. Initial findings suggest that the active ingredient also positively effects health in children and adolescents and that they tolerate CBD oil well, but long-term studies on possible side effects are still lacking. For this reason, caution should be exercised if you are considering treating your child with CBD oil. You should consult your doctor in advance.

CBD in pregnancy

The use of CBD oil during pregnancy is not recommended as the active ingredient could have an unfavourable effect on the placenta.

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Manufacturing

CBD oil is produced by extraction from the dried flowers and leaves of the hemp plant. In industrial production, carbon dioxide is mostly used as a solvent.

At 600 bars of pressure, liquid carbon dioxide penetrates the components of the plant. In addition to the flowers and leaves, the stems of the plant are also used. The carbon dioxide releases the CBD. When the pressure normalizes, the carbon dioxide evaporates without residue. This gentle process is advantageous in that important ingredients such as the terpenes are retained.

The final CBD extract is dissolved in oil after extraction. As a rule, hemp seed oil is used because it supports the healthy properties of the CBD due to its valuable ingredients. However, the oil can taste very herbaceous. This is why some manufacturers offer CBD that has been dissolved in olive oil. The final CBD oil product is usually available at a 2 to 10 percent concentrated solution. CBD oil should be exposed to as minimal and heat and light. It is best solution to keep a once opened bottle in the fridge. After opening the bottle, the CBD oil is stable for about a year.

Ingredients

In addition to cannabidiol, CBD oil contains about 480 other cannabinoids, the most important of which are:

  • CBC acid (CBDA)
  • Cannabichromen (CBC)
  • Cannabinol (CBN)
  • Cannabigerol (CBG).

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In addition, there are other active ingredients:

  • Various flavonoids (phytochemicals)
  • The terpenes: myrcene, limonene, alpha and beta pinene, caryophyllene and the terpene alcohols: phytol, nerolidol and linalool.

History

The meaning of the term ‘hemp; has not yet been fully clarified. Some linguists suspect that the term is a derivative of the Greek generic name cannabis, which has undergone numerous modifications over a long period of time. The sativa name comes from Latin and characterizes hemp as a crop.

Early history

In ancient China, cannabis seeds have been around for about 8000 BC. Used as food and medicine as archaeological finds testify. The fibers of the hemp plant were used to make ropes and clothing. At least since 87 BCE, hemp was also used in China as a raw material for paper production.

Through the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing ("Medicinal Herb Classic after Shennong"), a Chinese book of medicinal plants that dates from around 300 to 200 BC. B.C., we get information about the use of hemp as a medicinal plant. The content is attributed to the research of the legendary Emperor Shennong (approx. 2800 BC), who is said to have studied the medicinal herbs extensively. According to the traditions of this plant, the Chinese currently use hemp as a remedy for rheumatism, gout, malaria, constipation and menstrual cramps as well as externally for the treatment of skin diseases, wounds and ulcers.

Hemp reached Europe early via India and the two-stream country, which is largely in what is now Iraq. One of the first regions in which it spread was Thuringia. Its use in the Eisenberg area has been attested by archaeological finds for several millennia.

Antiquity

The hemp plant enjoyed increasing popularity in antiquity. The historian, ethnologist and geographer Herodotus (approx. 485-425 BCE) reports on the extraordinary hemp clothing of the Thracians, an equestrian people from the Balkans. Later the Greeks also started to wear clothing made from hemp.

The plant finally found its way to the Romans from Greece. These apparently used hemp primarily as a pain reliever. Pliny the Elder (23 / 24-79 AD), a Roman scholar, praised the pain-relieving properties of the hemp root against gout in his natural history treatise Naturalis Historia. The physician Pedanios Dioskurides, a contemporary of Plinius, cured earaches with cold-pressed hemp oil, as we can learn from his drug teaching Materia Medica.

In ancient China, hemp seeds have been around since about 8000 BC. Its uses include food and medicine as archaeological finds testify. The fibers of the hemp plant were used to make ropes and clothing. At least since 87 BC BC, hemp was also used in China as a raw material for paper production.

Through the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing ("Medicinal Herb Classic after Shennong"), a Chinese book of medicinal plants that dates from around 300 to 200 BC. B.C., we get information about the use of hemp as a medicinal plant. The content is attributed to the research of the legendary Emperor Shennong (approx. 2800 BC), who is said to have studied the medicinal herbs extensively. According to the traditions of this plant, the Chinese currently use hemp as a remedy for rheumatism, gout, malaria, constipation and menstrual cramps as well as externally for the treatment of skin diseases, wounds and ulcers.

Botany

Since hemp spread around the world several millennia ago, it is no longer possible to clearly determine where it originates. Judging by the archaeological evidence, it comes from the Central Asian region. Hemp is an annual herb that can grow up to 3 meters high as a wild plant. The domesticated plant it can grow up to 5 meters under favourable conditions.

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Hemp is a diocese (dioecious) plant. That means there are male and female hemp plants. Hermaphrodite plants (monoecious or single- plants) are less common. The female hemp plant differs from the male by its branched growth and large, strong leaves. Their relatively compact flowers can be found next to the leaves on the leaf axis, whereas the male flowers are clustered together on the branched shoots. Since the male plant ripens earlier than the female, the harvest takes place at different times. The seeds of the plant, also called hemp nuts, reach a diameter of approx. 3mm and an average length of 4mm.

Cultivation

Marijuana is now cultivated worldwide and thrives well in temperate to tropical climates. It loves warmth as well as nutritious, deep and calcareous soils and should be well watered. Hemp is a robust plant and has the ability to control weeds by itself. Since it is also rarely attacked by pests, neither pesticides nor herbicides are required for cultivation. Young plants in particular should be protected from severe frost below -4 degrees where possible. About 100 litres of hemp oil can be obtained from 100 kg of seeds.

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